Tooth implantation methods
Tooth implantation methods
What methods does modern dentistry use for high-quality dental implantation? Classification methods of implantation of several. Let’s try to give them a brief description.
According to the relationship of the implant with soft and hard tissues, the following methods of implantation are distinguished:
- Intra mucous implantation. It is shown to improve the attachment (fixation) of a removable prosthesis in case of atrophy of the alveolar process in the upper jaw, especially with defects in the development of the palate. For this, metal implants are usually used in the form of buttons, but which are attached to a removable denture.
- Submucous (submucosa) implantation. Usually involves the presence of magnets located under the mucous membrane. It is used to prevent the removal of removable dentures, i.e. improve fixation and stabilization.
- Subperiosteal (subperiosteal) implantation. Requires the manufacture of individual designs. To do this, during the operation, get an impression of the structure of the bone surface. Then an implant is made by casting and during the operation it is placed under the periosteum. Such implantation is used in case of marked atrophy of the jaws and severe tooth loss, which allows further use of the implant for various types of prosthetics.
- Intraioscule subperiosteal implantation is used to install special implants with a head, neck, subperiosteal and endosteal part of the structure. These implants have complex geometry, combine all the positive aspects of subperiosteal and intraosseous implants, and at the same time do not have their disadvantages. Used for installation in the anterior part of the jaws in the absence of several teeth in those places where maximum implant stability is required during all movements of the jaw.
- Intra-intraosseous implantation. It is used for the prevention and elimination of the pathological mobility of the teeth in case of periodontitis and periodontal disease, against the background of severe destruction of the tooth crown, as well as to impart stability to the teeth in the remote apex of the tooth root. For this method of implantation metal pins are used.
- Intraosseous implantation is a method of implanting laminar, cylindrical, conical and other implants through an incision in the gums and periosteum into the bone tissue of the jaw.
The indication for choosing a particular implant shape is the location of the defect, the thickness and height of the bone tissue at the implantation site, the anatomical features of the jaw structure and some other factors. In connection with these emit:
1. Plate implants. They were first proposed in 1967 in the United States. They are used for end defects of the dentition (the absence of the last few in the row of teeth) with intolerance to removable dentures.
2. Screw implants (root implants). The most popular designs today. They are easier to install and they give less complications.
3. Extreme implants. Used rarely and mainly for fixing dentures.
In general, among the listed methods of dental implantation, intraosseous implantation is the most popular today, since It has maximum performance (more than 97% success).
Another criterion for the classification of implantation methods is the fact that the implant communicates with the oral cavity during the engraftment period. Stand out:
- Single stage implantation, i.e. implant installation in one step.
- Two-stage implantation. After the implant is installed, time is required for engraftment, and only then the outer alveolar part (visible in the oral cavity) is installed.
Comparison of implantation methods
To choose one or another implantation method, guided by the indications and contraindications, is the task of the implantologist, from the optimal solution of which the success of the whole implantation process as a treatment largely depends. This choice is based on the clinical case the patient has addressed; results of examination and laboratory diagnostics; tasks that are set at the initial consultation.
The choice of implantation method depending on the clinical case
To date, dental implantology can offer five basic methods of implant installation, each of which has its advantages in a given situation, is characterized by an individual approach and allows to solve exactly the problem for which it was developed by specialists. For example, if the classical method of implantation of teeth can be applied in almost all medical indications and is universal, then mini-implantation is applicable only in a situation when it is necessary to additionally fix an installed removable prosthesis, and this is precisely the best method.
Of course, you can try to compare all these methods of implantation with each other, based on the time needed for installation, cost, the need to build up bone tissue or its non-binding nature, but this is still the task of the implantologist. It is important to understand that the patient does not need to compare the entire arsenal of techniques with each other, but try to listen to the expert’s opinion as carefully as possible on why this particular technique is appropriate in his case, and it’s good to understand it if you wish. Understand in order to trust the doctor more, to understand what is happening and to feel more comfortable and to have a positive attitude towards treatment. Because as well as the qualifications of the doctor, the quality of the implants and the compliance of the methodology with the tasks of treatment, the attitude of the patient to this is also important.
The only thing that remains to add is the observation of Alpha Dent Implants specialists that classical implantation is increasingly giving way to methods that have appeared after it and, having narrower indications, nevertheless act as more effective implantation strategies in each individual case.
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